教案和课后习题

Chapter 1  Introduction to tourism management

I. Introduction to this course

(1) Tourism management course taught in English; not an English course; English grammar and structures will not be explained in class

(2) Additional books will be suggested

(3) Homework must be written in English, and final examination paper will be written in English, but you can choose to answer the questions in English, Chinese or in the mixture of English and Chinese.

(4) The course itself is not very difficult at all, but the English texts are. So preview or preparation is necessary for everybody.

(5) At the end of each chapter I will give you some review questions. And at the end of each chapter there are also the summary of key terms. These are the major points of the chapter and also your learning focuses.

(6) Questions are welcome both in and out class, and discussions are encouraged in class.

II. Definition of tourism

Tourism is the sum of the phenomena and relationship arising from the interaction among tourists, business suppliers, host governments, host communities, origin governments, universities, community colleges and non-governmental organizations, in the process of attracting, transporting, hosting and managing these tourists and other visitors. (See Figure 1.1 on Page 3)

III. The importance of tourism

The importance of tourism will be discussed in three aspects: economic, environmental and sociocultural.

IV. Tourism as an academic field of study

Obstacles to development

a. Tourism perceived as trivial activity

b. Large-scale tourism as a recent activity

c. Tourism perceived as a vocational field of study

d. Lack of clear definitions and reliable data

e. Lack of indigenous (its own) theory and a strong academic tradition

(See Figure 1.2 on Page 7)

V. A sequence of tourism platform (perspectives)

Advocacy platform: positive force, anti-management, left to develop on its own

Cautionary platform: destructive force, strict management,

Adaptancy platform: combination of the above two, e.g. ecotourism or alternative tourism

Knowledge-based platform: management decisions are based not on politics or emotion, but on sound knowledge.

VI. Academic discipline

Indigenous theories

Multidisciplinary approach

Interdisciplinary approach

(See Page 19)

VII. The tourism life cycle

From Old tourism to New tourism

(See separate sheet for the diagram of the life cycle)

VIII. Tourism studies

(See Figure 1.3 on Page 15)

Questions:

1. #4 on Page 20

2. Give a clear definition of tourism.


Chapter 2  The tourism system

I. The basic whole tourism system

Based on a system approach, the basic whole tourism system consists of 5 core elements: 3 geographical components (tourist-generating region, transit route region and tourist destination), tourists and tourism industry. See Figure 2.1 on Page 24, and Figure 2.2 on Page 25.

II. The tourist

Spatial component

Domestic tourist: experience within a person’s usual country of residence

International tourist: travel beyond their usual country of residence

Outbound tourist: an international tourist departing from his usual country of residence

Inbound tourist: an international tourist arriving from another country

Temporal component

Stayover: a tourist who spends at least one night in a destination region

Excursionist: a tourist who spends less than one night in a destination region

III. Travel purpose

Leisure/recreation

Visiting friends and relatives (VFR)

Business

Sport

Spiritual and health

Study

Multipurpose tourism

IV. Major tourist categories

See Figure 2.3 on Page 34.

V. WTO terminology

See Figure 2.4 on Page 34.

Stopovers: do not clear customs or undergo any other border formalities

VI. Origin Region

Country, state, city, etc., we sometimes refer to origin as the market or generating region.

Origin community: the residents of the origin region

Out: money, business

In: fashion, food, culture, new ideas, AIDS, marriage

Origin government: the government of the origin region

VII. Transit Region

The places and regions that tourists pass through as they travel from origin to destination region.

Impacts on the transit region:

Major transit hub (airport), motel (highway)

Effects of technology:

Jet plane (supersonic Concorde, 7000 km in less than 4 hours), See Figure 2.6 (no refueling stop), expressway

VIII. Destination Region

Destination community: the residents of the destination region (the same is true as to origin community)

Destination government: the government of the destination region

IX. Tourism Industry

The sum of the industrial and commercial activities that produce goods and services wholly or mainly for tourist consumption. (Note the difference from the tourism system on Page 3, Basic whole tourism system on Page 24) (See Figure 2.7 on Page 47)

Questions:

#2, #4 & #8


Chapter 3  The evolution and growth of tourism

I. Pre-modern tourism

1. Mesopotamia (美索不达米亚): Cradle of Civilization (Origin of Civilization); Leisure class; Discretionary (not controlled strictly by rules) time & discretionary income

2. Egypt and the Indus Valley: tourist graffiti

3. Ancient Greece: Olympic Games (a national festival); tourist resort (the game site); sport and event tourism

4. Ancient Rome: wealthy country and people; Pompeii; travel a long distance

5. The Middle Ages: Pilgrim (spiritual purposes)

II. Early modern tourism (1500-1950)

1. The Grand Tour: the aristocratic classes of UK and other part of northern Europe to continental Europe for educational and cultural purposes

2. Spa resort:

3. Seaside resorts: Industrial Revolution results in the demand of relaxing environment

4. Thomas Cook

III. Modern mass tourism (1950-)

The biggest industry in the world: one of every ten jobs; about 6 per cent of all economic activity

IV. Factors associated with increased tourism demand (push factors)

Economic; Social; Demographic; Technological; Political

1. Economic factors (four phases, see Page 71)

2. Social factors

Phase One: task-oriented not time-oriented

Phase Two: play in order to work philosophy

Phase Three & Four: work in order to play; flexitime; earned time

3. Demographic factors

reduced family size; population increase; urbanization; increased life expectancy

4. Technological factors

long-haul air transportation

5. Political factors

control vs freedom

Questions:

Discuss economic, social, demographic and technological factors based on Burton’s four phases of tourism participation.


Chapter 4  Destinations

I. Global destination patterns: MDCs & LDCs

MDC: the more developed countries

Phase III & IV of Burton’s

Australia, NZ, USA, Canada, most Western European countries, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, etc.

LDC: the less developed countries

Phase II of Burton’s, sometimes Phase I (rarely)

Latin America and the Caribbean, most Asia, Africa and the islands of Pacific and Indian Oceans (Third World countries)

II. Tourism market share and growth

See Table 4.1 on Page 94

III. Reasons for the LDCs to be destinations

1. Demand for 3S tourism (sea, sand and sun)

Sunbelt in USA, pleasure periphery, SISODs

2. Economic growth of LDCs

IV. Pull factors influencing a destination

Pull factors

1. Geographical proximity to market

2. Accessibility to market

infrastructural accessibility

political accessibility

Erasing borders in the European Union

Open door policy (China)

3. Availability of attractions

Theme parks, battlefields, natural beauties, Las Vegas (casino), etc.

 

4. Cultural links

Overseas Chinese all over the world

American Jews to Israel

Muslim pilgrims to Mecca, Saudi Arabia

Roman Catholics to Italy and Vatican City

 

5. Availability of services

The services in MDCs are much better than those in LDCs

Africa, service is poor, though beautiful

6. Affordability

LDCs à or ß MDCs

China à or ß USA

7. Peace and stability

Gulf War Iraq War

Africa

China

8. Positive market image

Image may be defined as the sum of beliefs, attitudes and impressions held by a person or group of people towards some phenomenon.

Image can be descriptive (Japan is good for sightseeing) or evaluative (Japan is expensive). Positive image of the destination is the base for people to reach the decision of traveling.

9. Pro-tourism policies

China’s pro-tourism policies: gold week (longer national holiday); please name some pro-tourism policies in Dalian (festivals and events)

V. Regional destination pattern

Europe

14 percent of the world population, almost 60 percent of its stayovers (1996); 6 of the top 10 destination countries, 16 of the top 30 (see Table 4.3 on Page 112)

North America (USA, Canada, Mexico)

7 percent of the world population, 14 percent stayovers

The Caribbean

Famous for its 3s resources; 0.7 percent of the world population, 2.4 per cent of its stayovers

South Pacific

0.13 per cent of the world population, 0.5 percent of the stayovers

Africa

Not a good destination

The Middle East

Proportion of the world population and stayovers is even.

South Asia

20 percent of the world population, but 1 percent of stayovers

Questions:

#1, #2 on Page 125


Chapter 5  The tourism product

I. Tourism product

The combination of tourist attractions and the tourism industry (Figure 2.7 on Page 47)

(travel agencies, transportation, accommodation, food and beverages, tour operators, attractions, merchandisers, etc.)

II. Tourist Attractions

Attraction inventory (Figure 5.1 on page 134)

Tourism resources:

1. Natural sites

Topography: mountains, beaches

Climate:

Singapore people going to Heilongjiang to enjoy the different climate; 3S resorts;

Hot-to-cool; cool-to-hot;

Water: snow, geothermal water (spas, hot springs); seaside;

Wildlife: beautiful wildlife in NZ and Australia

Vegetation: north; south; tropical; grassland

Protected natural areas: Yellowstone; Grand Canyon; Banff; Jiuzaigou; Zhangjiajie

Location: Newfoundland; Shanhaiguan; Mohe in Heilongjiang

2. Natural event

Saskatchewan is popular for spring and fall migrations of water birds.

Volcanic eruptions; the tidal action in Qiantangjiang

3. Cultural sites

Pre-historical: Easter Island; Peking man (ape-man)

Historical: monuments, battlefields, heritage districts (Forbidden City), museums

Contemporary: ethnic neighborhoods (modern cities, Chinatowns)

Economic activities: wineries (in Germany, England, France), canals

Specialized recreational attractions (SRAs): golf course; theme parks; casinos; scenic highways, bikeways, railways and hiking trails

Retail: mega-malls (West Edmonton Mall—see sharks from a submarine, man-made beach, Ice Palace, food courts, shops; New Mart), market and bazaars (floating market in Bangkok, women street in Hong Kong, Wuai Market in Shenyang, even Dacaishi in Dalian, Nanjing Road in Shanghai, Wangfujing in Beijing)

4. Cultural events

historical re-enactment (重现) and commemorations (Lushun)

sporting events: Games, World Cup; Olympics

world fairs:

festivals: fashion, beer, arts, music (Table 5.1 on page 149)

Attraction attributes:

Ownership: public or private

Orientation: profit or non-profit

Spatial configuration: nodal (point) or areal (area)

Scarcity:

Status: Primary or secondary

Market: niche or inclusive (niche-marketing, selling a product to a particular group of people)

III. The tourism industry

1. Travel agencies

famous travel agencies: Thomas Cook Travel, American Express, China International Travel Service (CITS)

2. Transportation

Air

Scheduled airlines; charter airlines; private jets

Air China, Dragonair, Cathay Pacific Airlines, Japan Airlines (JAL), All Nippon Airways (ANA), Air Canada, Air France, British Airways, Korean Air (大韩), Qantas Airways, United Airlines, etc.

Star Alliance (星空联盟) on Page 157

Freedoms of the air

Freedom: free use of sth (see figure 5.4 on page 156), Read Text on page 157

Road

Railway

Well-used railway network in Western Europe

Britrail Pass (monthly pass), Eurailpass, Oriental Express (London to Istanbul), Eastern Oriental Express (Bangkok to Singapore)

Water

Cruise ships, ferries (NZ, Vancouver, Newfoundland, English channel)

3. Accommodation

Hotel & apartment (see table 5.2 for hotel chains)

Motel

Timesharing: customers purchase one or more intervals (or weeks) per year in a resort for a long period of time (read the passage on page 161)

Caravan parks & campground (popular in Phase Four countries)

Vacation farms

4. Food and beverage outlets

5. Tour operators

The major role of tour operators is to provide a package of services for the consumer

See the definition on page 167

6. Merchandise

tourism-related merchandise: gifts, souvenirs (from jewellery to T-shirt, craft, artworks, clothing, duty-free items

7. Industry structure

See figure 5.5

Subsidiary: sub-company

Questions:

#1, #3, #5

Homework:

Prepare an inventory of tourist attractions in your hometown, using figure 5.1 as the basic guide that can be refined if necessary.


Chapter 6  Tourist markets

I. Tourist market trends

Tourist market:

Market segmentation:

Market segments:

The democratization of travel:

The emergence of simple market segmentation and multilevel segmentation:

Niche market and “market of one” (personalization)

See figure 6.1 on page 176

II. The decision-making process

The buying process

The destination selection process

III. Tourist market segmentation

1. Geographic segmentation: origin country or region (Asian, North American, European, Japanese, Korean, Russian); subnational origin (southern, northern, coastal); urban and rural origin

2. Sociodemographic segmentation: Gender and gender orientation; age and family life cycle (order adults, young adults, family life cycle <see figure 6.4 on page 189>); education, occupation and income, race, ethnicity and religion

3. Psychographic segmentation: Plog’s psychographic typology (psychocentrics, allocentric); Smith’s tourist typology; motivation

4. Behavioral segmentation: travel occasion (honeymoon, birthday, funeral); destination coverage; activity; use frequency; repeat patronage and loyalty

Questions:

#1, #3, #8, #10, #12


Chapter 7  Tourist marketing

I. The Nature of Marketing

Definition of Marketing: Marketing involves the interaction and interrelationship among consumers and producers of goods and services, through which ideas, products, services and values are created and exchanged for the mutual benefit of both groups.

II. Services marketing is different from goods marketing in:

Intangibility (不明确性、无形性): before purchase or consumption, the actual tourism service cannot be seen, touched, tasted or felt

Inseparability (不可分、生产和消费的同步性): production and consumption occur at the same time

Variability (多样性): influenced by a large number of “human element” factors, e.g. meals, same package and different tour guide

Perishability (不可贮存性): cannot be produced and stored today for future use or consumption, e.g. flight seats, hotel rooms

III. Marketing supply and demand

Fixed costs: costs that the operation has little flexibility to change over the short term, such as interest costs on borrowed funds and basic facility maintenance costs

Variable costs: costs that can be readily reduced in the short term, such as salaries of casual (short term) staff

See figure 7.1 on page 217

Daily variations in demand:

hotel (check-in: 7 am to 10 am; check-out: late afternoon & early evening)

cruise ship: peak hours and calm periods

Weekly variations in demand:

Hotel: four-day market (business oriented, Monday to Thursday); three-day market (holiday oriented, or weekend market)

Seasonal variations in demand:

High season, shoulder periods, low season

Long-term variations in demand:

The economic development cycle is a long term.

IV. Supply/demand matching strategies

See figure 7.2 on page 219

V. Marketing functions of NTOs (national tourism organizations)

See page 224 (), this is an Australian model

VI. Strategic tourism marketing

See figure 7.6 on page 227

SWOT

VII. Marketing mix

Marketing mix: the critical components that determine the demand for a business or destination product

6P Model
Place

Product

People

Price

Pakaging

Promotion: presentation; personal selling; sales promotion; publicity; merchandising; advertising

VIII. Customer orientation

Customer-focused framework: 12C model (see page 238)

Database marketing:

A comprehensive marketing strategy that is based on a memory of prior business transactions with customers; the use of accumulated customer data to inform marketing decisions.

Questions:

#2, #3, #4, #8, #9, #11

Homework:

(a) Visit a local travel agency and pick up one promotional brochure from a tour operator, attraction or destination.

(b) How are the 6 Ps emphasized in the brochure?

(c) Which of the 6 Ps appears to be the most important in the brochure? Why?


Chapter 8  Economic impacts of tourism

Direct revenue: money that is obtained directly from tourists, as though immediate expenditures in the destination and associated taxes

See Table 8.1 on page 249

Taxation revenue: sales tax, departure tax, customs duty, airport fee

See Figure 8.1 on page 252

Contribution of tourism to GNP: Maldives (83.7 per cent); Anguilla (安圭拉, 75 per cent); Virgin Islands (74.5 per cent)

Indirect revenue: revenue obtained through the circulation of money within a destination once the tourists have spent this money

Income multiplier effect (IME)

See figure 8.2 on page 255; figure 8.3 on page 256

Economic integration and diversification

Backward linkages

See definition on page 274

Employment (direct and indirect)

Regional development

Turns natural sites into valuable commodity for the tourism industry: 3S tourism, Bingyugou, golden pebble beach

Poor city or region developed into rich areas: Jeju, Macau

Growth pole strategy: propulsive activity (center promotes the development of surrounding areas); four stages (see page 258) (4 points)

Growth potential

See figure 8.4 on page 260 and explain it in Chinese

Formal and informal sectors

Formal sector: the components of the economy that is subject to official systems of regulation and remuneration (compensation), regular working hours, wages, quality control, the formal sector dominates Phase Four societies (MDCs)

Informal sector: the components of a society’s economy that is not regulated by the official institutions of the society, the business is not taxed at all, no regular working hours, wages, quality control, the informal sector dominates the less developed world (LDCs)

Economic Costs

Direct financial costs: direct expenses that necessarily incurred to sustain the tourism sector; within the public sector typical areas of outlay (expenses) include administration and bureaucracy, marketing, research and incentives

See table 8.4 on page 264

Indirect financial costs:

Revenue leakages: a major category of indirect financial costs

See page 265

Enclave resort

Demonstration effect

Bad effects: see page 265

Opportunity costs: see page 272

Employment problems

6 points on page 272

Questions:

#2(a), #5, #6


Chapter 9  Sociocultural and environmental impacts of tourism

I. Sociocultural benefits

Promotion of cross-cultural understanding

Stereotype

People who travel extensively are often characterized as more broad-minded, tolerant and cosmopolitan (world-wide)

Tourism is a vital force for world peace

Incentive value of tourism in preserving the local culture and heritage

Tourism stimulates the preservation or restoration of historical buildings and sites

Fostering of social wellbeing and stability

II. Sociocultural costs

Commodification

The ways cultural commodification occurred:

See page 286

Frontstage & backstage (前台、后台), see page 287

Servility

Prostitution

Demonstration effect

Relationship between tourism and crime

Factor contributing to the increased likelihood of sociocultural costs

See page 294 to 296, see figure 9.1 on page 297

Irridex

Irridex = index of resident irritation, irritation index

Euphoria (欣快) à Apathy (冷漠) à Annoyance (烦扰) à Antagonism (对抗) à Resignation (顺从)

III. Environmental benefits

IV. Environmental costs

Environmental impact sequence

See figure 9.3 on page 303

“Permanent” environmental restructuring

See page 304

See figure 9.4

Generation of waste residuals

See page 305

Tourist activities

Management implications of sociocultural and environmental impacts

1. It must be emphasized that all tourism-related activity causes a certain amount of stress. The critical issue is not whether stress can be avoided altogether, but whether the incurred levels are acceptable.

2. Stress is inevitably linked to the notion of carrying capacity, which varies from site to site, and can be manipulated through site hardening and other adaptive measures.

3. Carrying capacities are often extremely difficult to identify, since stress and its impact are not always dramatic, but rather incremental and long-term.

Questions:

#2(a)

Explain the stages of irridex.

Explain the environmental impact sequence.


Chapter 10  Destination development

I. Destination life cycle

The theory that tourism-oriented places experience a sequential process of birth, growth, maturation, and then possibly something similar to death, in their evolution as destinations

See example on page 316

II. The Butler sequence (See figure 10.1 on page 317)

(1) exploration (探索)

(2) involvement (参与)

(3) development (发展)

(4) consolidation (固化)

(5) stagnation (停滞、萧条) à rejuvenation(更新), continued stagnation(继续萧条), decline(衰退)

III. Critique of the Butler sequence

See figure 10.2 on page 329

The question of geographic scale

Cross-sectoral considerations

The Butler sequence as an “ideal type”

IV. Factors that change the destination life cycle

See figure 10.3 on page 332

V. National tourism development

See figure 10.4 on page 336

Questions:

#2, #3, #4


Chapter 11  Sustainable tourism

I. Paradigm shift

Paradigm: the entire constellation of briefs, assumptions and values that underlie the way in which a society interprets reality at a given point in time. Also defined as world view or cosmology.

See page 349

II. The dominant western environmental paradigm vs the green paradigm

Sustainable development: see page 353

III. Sustainable tourism

Definition: see page 381

Indicator (指标); benchmark; threshold

IV. Sustainability and mass tourism

Reasons for adoption: see page 356

l       The growth of the “new traveler” market

l       The profitability of sustainability

l       The suitability of large corporations to adopt sustainable practices

Codes of ethics: see page 362

V. Sustainability and small scale tourism

Alternative tourism: definition on page 381

Circumstantial alternative tourism (CAT)

Deliberate alternative tourism (DAT)

Sociocultural alternative tourism

DAT: page 368

Ecotourism definition on page 382

Three ways different from other types of tourism  Page 369

Hard ecotourism & soft ecotourism

Figure 11.7 on page 370

Questions:

What are the major differences between the dominant western and green paradigms?

#9(a)

Chapter 12 Tourism Research

I. The primary purpose of research

To provide managers with such knowledge in a timely manner. Therefore, it is critical that students of tourism management become familiar with the research process and related issues so that the best possible and most relevant research outcomes can be achieved. (page 388)

II. Types of research

Basic vs applied  induction (归纳)deduction (演绎)

Cross-sectional (横向)vs longitudinal (纵向)

Qualitative vs quantitative

Primary (初始、直接)vs secondary (间接、非初始)